Modely v didaktice biologie
The presented paper builds on a study presented on the international conference ECEL (Jančaříková, Jančařík, 2016). The ECEL paper has been extended and related to the context of Czech pedagogy and science education. Janik and Stuchlikova wrote that PISA study has defined several key areas to be paid attention to by science teachers. One of these areas is work with models. The term “model” can be understood very broadly, it can refer to a drawing of a chemical reaction, a plastic model, a permanent mount (taxidermy) or to advanced 3D projections. Thanks to information and communication technologies, models can be included in lessons almost without limits. However, electronic models are not a universal solution. Efficiency of education using ICT can be negatively affected in case that work with complex models requires such level of abstraction that pupils are not capable of (Harrison, Treagust, 2000). Jančaříková (2015) points out that – due to demands on upper secondary pupils – children must be taught how to relate models to real objects from very early stages. In this paper, we want to point out the fact that not enough attention is paid to work with models – methodology of work with models does not exist and is not taught to pre-service teachers. The paper classifies types of models we come across in lessons, describes basic differences between objects and reality they represent and proposes possible ways of systematic inclusion of models into education. When preparing teaching materials one always has to bear in mind that a model differs from reality and one must check that pupils are aware of these differences. When developing pupils’ competence in working with models, we must proceed from simpler to more difficult models and the steps must be gradual.
modely, projekce, abstrakce, přírodovědná abstrakce, didaktika biologie, 3D zobrazení, interaktivní modely, domácí vzdělávání, waldorfská pedagogika