Subject matters of experiments and observations of water animals in school aquarium IV (mimetic phenomenons)

Lubomír Hanel


volume: 28
year: 2019
issue: 2
fulltext: PDF

online publishing date: 15/6/2019
DOI: 10.14712/25337556.2019.2.2
ISSN (Online): 2533-7556

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Mimicry is when a plant or animal resembles another organism or inanimate object, either to gain other advantage or to stay alive. In this contribution some types of mimicry are presented. The crypsis (concealing coloration) gives the oportunity to an animal to become inconspicuous in its natural environment to avoid being detected by potential observer. Anticrypsis – an organism´s co­loration and/or body shape that facilities attack of the enemies (e.g. water scorpion, phantom midge larva, reef stone fish). Procrypsis – a pattern or shade of coloring in animals that is adapted to concealing animals from their natural enemies (transparent body see, e.g. Indian glassy fish). The effect of countershading (obliterative shadding) is created with a darkly colored dorsal body surface and a lightly colored underside. Dis­ruptive coloration uses specially placed markings to conceal a animal by obscuring the contour of its body. Animals that are equipped with chemical defenses tend to be very brightly colored. Bold colors and patterns that advertise an animal’s danger to potential predators is called aposematic coloration (or warning coloration). Deflective marks redirect bites from an adversary towards less vital areas of the body. Allocrypsis – an organism´s con­cealing itself under a covering of living, or nonliving, material that it does not produce (see e.g. caddisfly larvae). Caddisfly cases are diverse in their appearance, and vary in the materials used for construction and the shape, structure, and size of the case. These aquatic larvae manufacture cases using different materials from the environment. Caddisflies build cases that function as protective armor against predators out of a variety of materials in their environment. These materials consist of organic particles, including pieces of leaves, sticks, or bark, as well as inorganic material such as sand. Experiments also with unusual materials for case building in caddisflies are presented.


mimicry, crypsis, countershading, disruptive coloration, warning coloration, deflective marks, water animals, school aquarium

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